Artists and writers collaborated to try out new forms of illustration and typography; new configurations of text and image. Psychologists sought to overcome the limitations of philosophical psychology; and they began to explore the same terrain as artists and writers. Clear demarcations among literature, art, and psychology had not yet been set; writers and artists borrowed from psychologists, and vice versa. A number of major psychologists, such as Alfred Binet and Charles Richet, wrote dramatic and fictional works, often under assumed names, whose themes mirrored those of their "scientific" works.
Yeats utilized spiritualistic automatic writing to compose a poetic psycho cosmology in A Vision. In Berlin, Hugo Ball noted:. Jung was born in Kesswil, on Lake Constance, in His family moved to Laufen by the Rhine Falls when he was six months old. He was the oldest child and had one sister. His father was a pastor in the Swiss Reformed Church.
Toward the end of his life, Jung wrote a memoir entitled "From the Earliest Experiences of My Life," which was subsequently included in Memories, Dreams, Rifl'ections in a heavily edited form. The memoir, with its focus on significant childhood dreams, visions, and fantasies, can be viewed as an introduction to Liber Novus. In the first dream, he found himself in a meadow with a stone-lined hole in the ground. Finding some stairs, he descended into it, and found himself in a chamber.
Here there was a golden throne with what appeared to be a tree trunk of skin and flesh, with an eye on the top. He then heard his mother's voice exclaim that this was the "man-eater," He was unsure whether she meant that this figure actually devoured children or was identical with Christ. This profoundly affected his image of Christ.
Years later, he realized that this figure was a penis and, later still, that it was in fact a ritual phallus, and that the setting was an underground temple. He came to see this dream as an initiation "in the secrets of the earth. He also appears to have had the capacity to evoke images voluntarily In a seminar in , he recalled a portrait of his maternal grandmother which he would look at as a boy until he "saw" his grandfather descending the stairs.
He then felt the approach of a terrible, sinful thought, which he pushed away He was in a state of anguish for several days. Finally; after convincing himself that it was God who wanted him to think this thought, just as it had been God who had wanted Adam and Eve to sin, he let himself contemplate it, and saw God on his throne unleashing an almighty turd on the cathedral, shattering its new roof and smashing the cathedral. With this, Jung felt a sense of bliss and relief such as he had never experienced before. He felt that it was an experience of the "direct living God, who stands omnipotent and free above the Bible and Church.
He realized that it was precisely such a direct, immediate experience of the living God, who stands outside Church and Bible, that his father lacked. This sense of election led to a final disillusionment with the Church on the occasion of his First Communion.
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He had been led to believe that this would be a great experience. Instead, nothing. He concluded: "For me, it was an absence of God and no religion. Church was a place to which I no longer could go.rigirbocomray.tk
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There was no life there, but death. The world and society in looked like this: life is completely confined and shackled. A kind of economic fatalism prevails; each individual, whether he resists it or not, is assigned a specific role and with it his interests and his character. The church is regarded as a "redemption factory" of little importance, literature as a safety valve. The most burning question day and night is: is there anywhere a force that is strong enough to put an end to this state of affairs?
And if not, how can one escape it? S Within this cultural crisis Jung conceived of undertaking an extended process of self-experimentation, which resulted in Liber Novus, a work of psychology in a literary form. We stand today on the other side of a divide between psychology and literature. To consider Liber Novus today is to take up a work that could have emerged only before these separations had been firmly established. Its study helps us understand how the divide occurred.
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But first, we may ask. Walter Lowrie New York: Pantheon, Jung possessed a copy of the latter. John Elderfield, tr. I, '''How to catch the bird': Jung and his first biographers. Jung's voracious reading started at this time, and he was particularly struck by Goethe's Faust. He was struck by the fact that in Mephistopheles, Goethe took the figure of the devil seriously In philosophy, he was impressed by Schopenhauer, who acknowledged the existence of evil and gave voice to the sufferings and miseries of the world. Jung also had a sense of living in two centuries, and felt a strong nostalgia for the eighteenth century His sense of duality took the form of two alternating personalities, which he dubbed NO.
He inhabited "God's world. Personality NO.
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When personality NO. He was connected to history, particularly with the Middle Ages. For NO. I, with his failings and ineptitudes, was someone to be put up with. This interplay ran throughout Jung's life. As he saw it, we are all like this-part of us lives in the present and the other part is connected to the centuries.
As the time drew near for him to choose a career, the conflict between the two personalities intensified. Jung then had two critical dreams. In the first, he was walking in a dark wood along the Rhine. He came upon a burial mound and began to dig, until he discovered the remains of prehistoric animals.
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This dream awakened his desire to learn more about nature. In the second dream, he was in a wood and there were watercourses. He found a circular pool surrounded by dense undergrowth. In the pool, he saw a beautiful creature, a large radiolarian. After these dreams, he settled for science. To solve the question of how to earn a living, he decided to study medicine.
He then had another dream. He was in an unknown place, surrounded by fog, making slow headway against the wind. He was protecting a small light from going out. He saw a large black figure threateningly close. He awoke, and realized that the figure was the shadow cast from the light. He thought that in the dream, NO. He took this as a sign that he should go forward with NO. I, and not look back to the world of NO. In his university days, the interplay between these personalities continued.
In addition to his medical studies, Jung pursued an intensive program of extracurricular reading, in particular the works of Nietzsche, Schopenhauer, Swedenborg, and writers on spiritualism. Nietzsche's Thus Spoke zarathustra made a great impression on him. He felt that his own personality NO. He participated in a student debating society, the Zofingia society, and presented lectures on these subjects.
Spiritualism particularly interested him, as the spiritualists appeared to be attempting to use scientific means to explore the supernatural, and prove the immortality of the soul. The latter half of the nineteenth century witnessed the emergence of modern spiritualism, which spread across Europe and America. Through spiritualism, the cultivation of tranceswith the attendant phenomena of trance speech, glossolalia, automatic writing, and crystal vision-became widespread.
The phenomena of spiritualism attracted the interest of leading scientists such as Crookes, Zollner, and Wallace. In , they engaged in a long series of sittings with his cousin Helene Preiswerk, who appeared to have mediumistic abilities.
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Jung found that during the trances, she would become different personalities, and that he could call up these personalities by suggestion. Dead relatives appeared, and she became completely transformed into these figures. She unfolded stories of her previous incarnations and articulated a mystical cosmology, represented in a mandala. On reading Richard von Krafft- Ebing's Text-Book ofPsychiatry in , Jung realized that his vocation lay in psychiatry, which represented a fusion of the interests of his two personalities. He underwent something like a conversion to a natural scientific framework.
After his medical studies, he took up a post as an assistant physician at Burgholzli hospital at the end of The Burgholzli was a progressive university clinic, under the directorship of Eugen Bleuler. At the end of the nineteenth century, numerous figures attempted to found a new scientific psychology It was held that by turning psychology into a science through introducing scientific methods, all prior forms of human understanding would be revolutionized.
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