Government civilian personnel stationed throughout the world.
MARS establishes programs to create civilian interest, recruit qualified volunteers, and furnish training in military communications, techniques, and procedures. Every year, MARS conducts an appropriate military and amateur radio cross-band exercise as an integral part of the annual Armed Forces Day. They provide a reserve of personnel trained in military radio communications, techniques, and procedures as well as to initiate efforts to improve radio-operating techniques.
MARS members test state-of-the-art technology through experimentation and testing.
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MARS celebrates Armed Forces Day annually with a traditional military to amateur crossband communications test and a message-receiving test. These tests give amateur radio operators and shortwave listeners an opportunity to demonstrate their individual technical skills and receive recognition from the Secretary of Defense or the appropriate military radio station for their proven expertise.
A QSL card is provided to those making contact with one of the military stations. Special commemorative certificates are awarded to anyone who receives and accurately copies the digital Armed Forces Day message from the Secretary of Defense. Participating military stations transmit on selected military MARS frequencies and listen for amateur radio stations in the amateur bands. The military station operator will announce the specific amateur-band frequency being monitored. The Military Auxiliary Radio System is still active today.
Morale and welfare messages are no longer the largest activity in MARS due to the increased use of the Internet and e-mail by deployed military personnel. The EEI's consisted of scenario disaster information. MARS played a large part in reporting up-to-date information on disasters and requesting military assistance using a dispersed and redundant radio network. Department of Defense Instruction From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. United States civilian auxiliary service for military support. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Straw, N6BV, ed. The ARRL handbook for radio communications 38 ed. Specter of shutting down mission raises questions, speculation". CQ Amateur Radio. United States Military Auxiliaries. While genetically modified food is the hot-button issue within this category, farmers have long been creating new hybrids and patenting them.
A more modern example might be food giant Monsanto, which patents corn with built-in pesticide U. Patent and Trademark Office Such evolving patents have created new forms of social organization and disorganization. Efforts by Monsanto to protect its patents have led to serious concerns about who owns the food production system, and who can afford to participate globally in this new agrarian world. This issue was brought to a head in a landmark Canadian court case between Monsanto and Saskatchewan farmer Percy Schmeiser. He saved the seed and grew his own crop, but Monsanto tried to charge him licensing fees because of their patent.
What is important to note is that through the courts, Monsanto established its right to the ownership of its genetically modified seeds even after multiple plantings. Each generation of seeds harvested still belonged to Monsanto. Anderson and Tushman suggest an evolutionary model of technological change , in which a breakthrough in one form of technology leads to a number of variations.
Once those are assessed, a prototype emerges, and then a period of slight adjustments to the technology, interrupted by a breakthrough.
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For example, floppy disks were improved and upgraded, then replaced by zip disks, which were in turn improved to the limits of the technology and were then replaced by flash drives. This is essentially a generational model for categorizing technology, in which first-generation technology is a relatively unsophisticated jumping-off point leading to an improved second generation, and so on.
Media and technology have evolved hand in hand, from early print to modern publications, from radio to television to film. New media emerge constantly, such as we see in the online world. Early forms of print media, found in ancient Rome, were hand-copied onto boards and carried around to keep the citizenry informed.
With the invention of the printing press, the way that people shared ideas changed, as information could be mass produced and stored. For the first time, there was a way to spread knowledge and information more efficiently; many credit this development as leading to the Renaissance and ultimately the Age of Enlightenment.
This is not to say that newspapers of old were more trustworthy than the Weekly World News and National Enquirer are today. Sensationalism abounded, as did censorship that forbade any subjects that would incite the populace. The invention of the telegraph, in the mids, changed print media almost as much as the printing press.
Suddenly information could be transmitted in minutes. As the 19th century became the 20th, American publishers such as Hearst redefined the world of print media and wielded an enormous amount of power to socially construct national and world events. With the invention and widespread use of television in the midth century, newspaper circulation steadily dropped off, and in the 21st century, circulation has dropped further as more people turn to internet news sites and other forms of new media to stay informed.
This shift away from newspapers as a source of information has profound effects on societies.
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When the news is given to a large diverse conglomerate of people, it must to appeal to them and keep them subscribing maintain some level of broad-based reporting and balance. As newspapers decline, news sources become more fractured, so that the audience can choose specifically what it wants to hear and what it wants to avoid.
With an anticipated decline in revenue of over 20 percent by , the industry is in trouble Ladurantaye Unable to compete with digital media, large and small newspapers are closing their doors across the country. The print newspapers are responsible for much of these costs internally.
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Digital media has downloaded much of these costs onto the consumer through personal technology purchases. In both cases, information and entertainment could be enjoyed at home, with a kind of immediacy and community that newspapers could not offer. Prime Minister Mackenzie King broadcast his radio message out to Canada in He later used radio to promote economic cooperation in response to the growing socialist agitation against the abuses of capitalism both outside and within Canada McGivern People heard about the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor as it was happening.
Hockey Night in Canada was first broadcast live in Even though people were in their own homes, media allowed them to share these moments in real time. Unlike newspapers, radio is a survivor. Radio is a voice in your ear. It is a highly personal activity. It broadcasts news and programming that is mostly local in nature. This same kind of separate-but-communal approach occurred with other entertainment too.
The influence of Canadian television has always reflected a struggle with the influence of U. There were thousands of televisions in Canada receiving U.
Public television, in contrast, offered an educational nonprofit alternative to the sensationalization of news spurred by the network competition for viewers and advertising dollars. Al Jazeera, the Arabic independent news station, has joined this group as a similar media force that broadcasts to people worldwide. The impact of television on North American society is hard to overstate. By the late s, 98 percent of homes had at least one television set.
All this television has a powerful socializing effect, with these forms of visual media providing reference groups while reinforcing social norms, values, and beliefs. The film industry took off in the s, when colour and sound were first integrated into feature films. Like television, early films were unifying for society: As people gathered in theatres to watch new releases, they would laugh, cry, and be scared together. Movies also act as time capsules or cultural touchstones for society.
The film industry in Canada has struggled to maintain its identity while at the same time embracing the North American industry by actively competing for U. Today, a significant number of the recognized trades occupations requiring apprenticeship and training are in the film industry. New media encompasses all interactive forms of information exchange.
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