Others around the world include the British Press Photographers Association  BPPA founded in , then relaunched in , and now has around members. Today it has 30 members, along with a mentor program. News organizations and journalism schools run many different awards for photojournalists. Since , Pulitzer Prizes have been awarded for the following categories of photojournalism: 'Feature Photography', 'Spot News Photography'.
Photojournalism works within the same ethical approaches to objectivity that are applied by other journalists. What to shoot, how to frame and how to edit are constant considerations. Photographing news for an assignment is one of the most ethical problems photographers face. Photojournalists have a moral responsibility to decide what pictures to take, what picture to stage, and what pictures to show the public.
For example, photographs of violence and tragedy are prevalent in American journalism because as an understated rule of thumb, that "if it bleeds, it leads". The public is attracted to gruesome photographs and dramatic stories. A lot of controversy arises when deciding which photographs are too violent to show the public.
Photographs of the dead or injured arouse controversy because, more often than not, the name of person depicted in the photograph is not given in the caption. The family of the person is often not informed of the photograph until they see it published. The photograph of the street execution of a suspected Viet Cong soldier during the Vietnam War provoked a lot of interest because it captured the exact moment of death. The family of the victim was also not informed that the picture would run publicly. Other issues involving photojournalism include the right to privacy , negotiating how the subject desires to be depicted,  and questions of whether compensation is warranted.
Especially regarding pictures of violence, photojournalists face the ethical dilemma of whether or not to publish images of the victims.
The victim's right to privacy is sometimes not addressed or the picture is printed without their knowledge or consent. The compensation of the subject is another issue. Subjects often want to be paid in order for the picture to be published, especially if the picture is of a controversial subject. Some pictures are simply manipulated for color enhancement, whereas others are manipulated to the extent where people are edited in or out of the picture.
2. Follow your intuition
War photography has always been a genre of photojournalism that is frequently staged. Due to the bulkiness and types of cameras present during past wars in history, it was rare when a photograph could capture a spontaneous news event. Subjects were carefully composed and staged in order to capture better images. Another ethical issue is false or misleading captioning.
The Lebanon War photographs controversies is a notable example of some of these issue, and see photo manipulation: use in journalism for other examples. The emergence of digital photography offers whole new realms of opportunity for the manipulation, reproduction, and transmission of images. It has inevitably complicated many of the ethical issues involved. Often, ethical conflicts can be mitigated or enhanced by the actions of a sub-editor or picture editor, who takes control of the images once they have been delivered to the news organization.
The photojournalist often has no control as to how images are ultimately used. Members of the NPPA accept the following code of ethics.
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Most photojournalists consider stage-managed shots presented as candid to be unethical. Mike Meadows, a veteran photographer of the Los Angeles Times , was covering a major wild fire sweeping southern California on 27 October His picture of a Los Angeles County firefighter, Mike Alves cooling himself off with water in a pool in Altadena ran both in the Times and nationally. Prior to submitting the photograph for a Pulitzer Prize , Meadows' assignment editor, Fred Sweets, contacted the firefighter, who reportedly said he had been asked by Meadows to go to the pool and splash water on his head.
Meadows denied the accusation, claiming "I may have been guilty of saying this would make a nice shot, but to the best of my recollection, I did not directly ask him to do that. I've been doing breaking news stories for years and years and I've never in my life set up a picture.
Other photographers at the scene claimed that Keating pointed with his own arm to show the boy which way to look and aim the gun. After the Columbia Journalism Review reported the incident, Keating was forced to leave the paper. As early as the Crimean War in the midth century, photographers were using the novel technology of the glass plate camera to record images of British soldiers in the field. As a result, they had to deal with not only war conditions, but their pictures often required long shutter speeds , and they had to prepare each plate before taking the shot and develop it immediately after.
This led to, for example, Roger Fenton traveling around in a transportable dark room, which at times made him a target of the enemy. These technological barriers are why he was unable to obtain any direct images of the action. The use of photography as a way of reporting news did not become widespread until the advent of smaller, more portable cameras that used an enlargeable film negative to record images.
Since the s, motor drives, electronic flash, auto-focus, better lenses and other camera enhancements have made picture-taking easier. New digital cameras free photojournalists from the limitation of film roll length. Although the number depends on the amount of megapixels the camera contains, whether one's shooting mode is JPEG or raw , and what size of memory card one is using, it is possible to store thousands of images on a single memory card.
Social media are playing a big part in revealing world events to a vast audience. Whenever there is a major event in the world, there are usually people with camera phones ready to capture photos and post them on various social networks. Such convenience allows the Associated Press and other companies to reach out to the citizen journalist who holds ownership of the photos and get permission to use those photos in news outlets.
The content of photos tends to outweigh their quality when it comes to news value.
Annie Leibovitz | Life Through A Lens | American Masters | PBS
As recently as 15 years ago, nearly 30 minutes were needed to scan and transmit a single color photograph from a remote location to a news office for printing. Now, equipped with a digital camera, a mobile phone and a laptop computer, a photojournalist can send a high-quality image in minutes, even seconds after an event occurs. Camera phones and portable satellite links increasingly allow for the mobile transmission of images from almost any point on the earth.
There is some concern by news photographers that the profession of photojournalism as it is known today could change to such a degree that it is unrecognizable as image-capturing technology naturally progresses. The age of the citizen journalist and the providing of news photos by amateur bystanders have contributed to the art of photojournalism. Paul Levinson attributes this shift to the Kodak camera, one of the first cheap and accessible photo technologies that "put a piece of visual reality into every person's potential grasp.
Phone journalism is a relatively new and even controversial means of photojournalism, which involves the use of pictures taken and edited on phones by professional or non-professional photographers. On a day with silvery light coming through clouds and Lake Superior to our right, she was piloting us northward from Duluth, on Highway We had a perfect car for an August road trip: her green Mercedes-Benz S, heavy as a tank and with seatbelts of questionable functionality.
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But Ms. She knew where she was going. For her, a Minnesota native who summers in what she called a cabin an hour or so away, Highway 61 was more than a conveyance; it was a creative wellspring dating back to her childhood. In fact, this was Ms. Inside, the 84 black-and-white photographs document all manner of life along 61, which runs — first as a state road, then for most of its route as a United States highway — from the Canadian border down to New Orleans, a city where she lived and owned a home for a time.
She was born in the town of Cloquet, Minn. But photography is much more than a hobby for her, as I discovered over our four-hour road trip. Wherever we stopped, she paused to take photographs. She started taking pictures seriously in the s, when her partner at the time, the playwright and actor Sam Shepard, came back from a trip to Germany with a Leica as a gift.
She saw it as a way to take high-quality pictures of their two children, and her practice grew from there. Lange, though now based in New York, has spent time over the last six years documenting all eight states where Highway 61 unfolds. The photographs themselves are grainy, suffused with intense light and shadow, capturing small moments featuring people, road signs, horizons, carnivals, diners.
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